Trade Agreement Influence

Another provision in Chapter 8 of the TPP, contained in Chapter 11 of the USMCA, requires members to “allow individuals of another party to participate in the development of technical rules, standards and procedures for assessing compliance by their governing bodies on conditions that are no less favourable than those accorded to their own persons” (TPP. 8.7.1; Article 11.7.1 of USMCA ARTICLE 11.7.1. A footnote to each agreement allows the parties to limit this obligation to “give interested parties an appropriate opportunity to comment on the extent proposed” and to “take these observations into account in the evolution of the measure.” The USMCA goes even further, with a provision requiring contracting parties to allow “persons of another party” to participate in groups or committees that develop standards, on “no less favourable terms than their own persons” (Article 11.7.8). These provisions could enable pharmaceutical industry stakeholders to influence drug decision-making in other countries. This analysis is based on the EORA Multiregional Entries Database (MRIO) [25, 26], which contains multi-regional entry-exit tables, representing national and international intermediate flows between 26 industrial sectors in 189 countries. In addition, the monetary values of goods entering each country`s final application are included. In particular, among existing MRIO databases, EORA has the broadest (almost global) coverage of economies and industrial sectors, while other similar data sets may have a greater degree of detail, but they cover far fewer countries, making them less suitable for this study. In particular, MRIO tables generally have a relatively coarse detailed sector level relative to national entry-out tables, but cover many countries, which is essential to study the impact of BDU on the networking of world trade. Next, we conducted a systematic comparative analysis of the legal texts of four recently concluded trade and investment agreements to define a comprehensive set of drug rules. The agreements selected were: The DG designed the idea for the document, led the development of the analytical framework, reviewed all trade agreements and designed the manuscript. JL, RL, BT, MAG, JK, LF and KS contributed to the development of the analytical framework and shared the role of second reviewer of commercial contract texts. All authors critically examined the draft manuscripts with respect to important intellectual content and made contributions to proposals that were discussed together.

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